The evidence establishing the clinical effectiveness, the safety, and biological mechanism for TMS is well defined in hundreds of scientific and medical publications dating back decades.

To assist in more detailed research, Mindful TMS has sectioned this evidence into three areas: Scientific Research, Clinical Studies, and Private Center Results.  Within each of these are clinical papers we feel are most representative for that section.

Scientific Research

Summary: Many models of research are established showing the biological impact of TMS on brain cells and brain regions. The below diagram is an example of the effects of TMS from the release of neurotransmitters through to the molecular changes of cells.


  • Chervyakov, AV, et al., Possible mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience; 16 June 2015.


Clinical Studies

Summary: Three clinical studies completed in the US have formed the foundation for the approval by health insurers and the FDA. Below are two graphs from the Neuronetics Clinical study, which was the first approved in the US. These graphs show the challenging patient population treated and the clinical results. These clinical results are displayed side-by-side with a separate clinical trial of antidepressant efficacy. Although the studies are not head-to-head studies, the graph does show that the next medication trial is less likely to relieve depressive symptoms than the previously tried medication.


  • Avery, D, et al. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in the Acute Treatment of Major Depressive Disorder: Clinical Response in an Open-label Extension Trial. J Clin Psychiatry, 69:3, March 2008.
  • Lisanby SH, Husain MM, Rosenquist PB, et al. daily left prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in the acute treatment of major depression: clinical predictors of outcome in a multisite, randomized controlled clinical trial. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2009;34(1):522-534;
  • Demitrack, MA , Thase, ME., Clinical significance of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in the treatment of pharmacoresistant depression: synthesis of recent data. Psychopharm Bull. 2009, (42(2): 5-38;


Private Clinic Results

Summary: Scientific Research and Clinical Studies are the foundation for the development of medical treatments. The clinical results seen in the doctor’s office is the true evidence of the value of a treatment. Fortunately, TMS has surpassed the results seen in the clinical trials. Below we have highlighted two private TMS clinics reports of results.



  • Carlsen, A, et al. Transcranial magnetic stimulation for the treatment of major depressive disorder in adolescents and young adults. Brain Stimulation 2018; May-June.
  • Manevitz, A. Halper,JP; Review of 200 Patients (7,000 treatments) Clinical Outcomes of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) Therapy performed in a Naturalistic Clinical Setting. Brain Stimulation; September-October 2015.




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